1. 17.What is meant by a Carrier?

    • Carrier is the person or animal that has a specific infectious agent in the absence of a clinical disease & who serves as a potential source of infections for others in the community.

  2. 18.What is Australia Antigen?

    • Australia antigen is the covering or capsule of HBV. Many a times an organism is identified on the basis of its covering thus similarly the presence of HBV in the body is often determined by its outside covering. It was first discovered in an Australian Tribal Man thus the name. Australia antigen is also called as “Hepatitis –B Surface Antigen” (HBsAg).

  3. 19.Which types of Hepatitis are dangerous?

    • Hepatitis-B and Hepatitis-Care quiet dangerous for health.

  4. 20.Who should take Hepatitis vaccines?

    • i) All new born babies at birth.
      ii) All children as soon as possible.
      iii) Persons involved to work related to health care & treatment of the disease.
      iv) All family members if any one of them is a patient of HBV.
      v) People with Hemophilia, Thalasemia etc for whom intake of blood is almost a regular measure.
      vi) People with renal disease, who need dialysis.

  5. 21.How is Hepatitis B & Hepatitis C prevented?

    • i) People should be aware of the route of transmission of the disease and precaution should be taken accordingly.
      ii) Vaccine should be taken.

  6. 22.Whether Hepatitis-B vaccine can prevent the disease?

    • Yes, Hepatitis-B vaccine can prevent the disease.

  7. 23.What is the dose schedule, quantity of vaccine given, in each does according to age and the dose interval?

    • i) The first dose should be taken as early as possible.
      ii) The second dose should be taken at one month interval.
      iii)The third dose should be taken after six months from the second dose.

      The Dose Schedule of the vaccine is given below:
      The amount of vaccine is 0.5 ml in case of a person below ten years .Above ten years it is 1.0ml. It should always be taken in the muscle, situated in the upper part of the arm (deltoid muscle).

  8. 24.Does the vaccine have any side effects?

    • Hepatitis-B vaccine is almost free from any side effects.

  9. 25.Whether booster dose of the vaccine is essential for everyone?

    • There is no requirement of the booster dose for general people. Booster dose is only required in persons of professional fields or blood donors.

  10. 26.Whether Hepatitis B is curable?

    • Yes, Hepatitis –B is almost curable.

  11. 27.What is Cirrhosis of liver and what are the complications of cirrhosis?

    • When the liver is damaged with persistent inflammation the liver cells will die. Some other cells (stellate) and fibers (collagen) encircle the dead cells & all became fibrosed and ineffective. This type of agglomeration of dead liver cells, fibers stellate cells will lead to cirrhosis of liver.

      The complications of Cirrhosis are as follows:
      i) Hepatic encephalopathy (incoherent talk, indifferent behavior etc.)
      ii) Ascites
      iii) Edema
      iv) Intractable Jaundice
      v) Variaceal bleeding is occasionally seen in advanced stage
      vi) Renal failure

  12. 28.How cirrhosis patient should lead his life?

    • The guidelines for cirrhosis patients are as follows:
      i) In primary stage of cirrhosis there should not be any change in life style.
      ii) If tiredness is felt take rest in between work.
      iii) In cirrhosis there is breakdown of protein in the body so in the initial stage the protein intake should be high.
      iv) If there is edema or ascites no extra salt, medicine should be taken correctly.
      v) If there is temperature or abdominal pain in cirrhosis patient –consult doctor as it be due to other bacterial infection or ascitic fluid infection.

  13. 29.What is Liver Cancer?

    • Liver Cancer is the malignant growth in the liver.

  14. 30.What are the causes of Liver Cancer, its signs & symptoms and how to detect it?

    • The causes of liver cancer are as follows:
      i) Chronic HBV infection
      ii) Chronic HCV infection
      iii) Haemochromatosis
      iv) Alcoholic Liver Disease
      v) Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
      vi) Exposure to toxins such as arsenic
      vii) Estrogen, Androgen& Anabolic steroids rarely causes

      The symptoms of Liver Cancer are as follows:
      i) Aflatoxin contamination of food
      ii) Fever
      iii) Weight Loss
      iv) Anorexia
      v) Weakness
      vi) Abdominal pain

      The signs of Liver Cancer are as follows:
      i)A large irregular liver or abdominal mass
      ii) Ascites
      iii)Intra abdominal bleeding

      Detection of liver cancer:
      i) Imaging-reveals one or more filling defects
      ii) Laparoscopy-Reveal the tumor
      iii) Liver tissue aspiration-biopsy
      iv) Serum alpha fetoprotein measurements (elevated values of serum alpha fetoprotein in liver cancer.)
      v) Ultrasonography- abnormality in shape & size

  15. 31.What is Hepatitis C and how it is transmitted?

    • Hepatitis C infection is a viral infection caused by Hepatitis C virus.

      Mode of Transmission:
      i) Parenteral-Transfusion of blood and blood products, intravenous drug abuse, body tattooing & occupational exposure
      ii) Sexual
      iii) Vertical (from mother to child.)

  16. 32.How Hepatitis C can be diagnosed?

    • i)Blood test for HCV Antibody
      ii)Raised ALT, AST
Back                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More
You can post your enquiries at :